The early weeks of pregnancy are fragile—and confusing. Here, the answers to your questions.
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What to do first
See your OB-GYN Your doctor will test for infections, including fertility-harming sexually transmitted diseases; monitor any chronic health problems; give you a prescription for prenatal vitamins containing folic acid; and review any medications you take.
Discontinue using birth control pills Stop taking them at least one full cycle before you start trying to conceive, advises Marian Damewood, M.D., chairwoman of the department of OB-GYN at York Hospital in York, Pa., and president of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.
Determine when you’re ovulating “When used correctly, [all three of the following methods] are relatively reliable in telling time of ovulation, but none is perfect,” says Lee C. Kao, M.D., co-director of the Center for Reproductive Medicine at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles.
Body temperature Take your temperature first thing every morning before you stir; it drops about a half-degree when you ovulate. Be aware that false readings are common, and the method can’t predict ovulation, only tell you that it’s happened, Damewood says.
Cervical mucus When you ovulate, cervical mucus increases in volume and becomes thinner and “stretchier.” Some women may notice the change.
Ovulation-predictor kits Over-the-counter urine tests such as First Response (about $28) and Answer (about $18) monitor levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), which surges 24 to 36 hours before ovulation. “I consider this method most reliable, based on clinical studies,” Kao says.
Time intercourse Have sex every other day beginning a few days before ovulation until a few days after. In a 28-day cycle, this would be from day 10 to day 18 (the day your period starts is day 1). Having sex more often may cause sperm levels to fall too low in a man with an already low count.
If it’s not happening
If you are under 35, seek medical advice if you’re not pregnant after a year of unprotected sex. If something in your medical history may impact your fertility, such as a sexually transmitted disease or pelvic surgery, see a doctor after six months of trying. Same if you’re over 35; egg quality declines quickly then. “Age has a dramatic effect on ability to conceive,” says Gilbert Haas, M.D., of the Center for Reproductive Health in Oklahoma City. If you’re 35 or older, the longer you wait to seek help, the less likely it is that a doctor will be able to help you conceive.
Have your partner get an infertility exam
The most common causes of male infertility are varicocele (dilated veins in the scrotum) and obstruction of sperm pathways; both usually can be corrected with outpatient surgery. While no medications can improve sperm count or motility (movement), procedures such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may help bypass the problem. Home tests such as Babystart and SpermConfirm measure sperm count and/or motility. However, a normal result doesn’t necessarily mean that a man’s sperm is not the issue, because these tests don’t check for all the factors that can contribute to problems. Unfortunately, for more than 20 percent of infertile men, the cause is unexplained, according to Peter N. Kolettis, M.D., an associate professor of urology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
See a doctor yourself
The older you are and the more complicated your medical history, the better it is to see a doctor with extensive training and experience in infertility. The good news is doctors can correct many problems with surgery, hormones and other medications. The diagnostic procedures you may undergo involve blood tests (including a check of your thyroid and progesterone levels), a biopsy of the uterine lining, a hystero-salpingogram (dye is injected to see if your uterus and tubes are normal) and a laparoscopy, which looks for endometriosis and adhesions in the tubes.
Investigate infertility centers and costs
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tracks infertility clinics’ success rates at www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/art.htm. For a list of the 15 states that mandate insurance coverage for infertility treatment, go to www.resolve.org. If you’re not covered, you may be drawn to the “package deals” some clinics offer. For example, some promise to provide a certain number of assisted reproductive technology cycles for a fixed fee or to refund money if treatment fails. Although some of these are legitimate, you should investigate them closely before agreeing to a package deal.
“Non-Western” practices to enhance fertility are best used in concert with traditional medicine, says Mark Bush, M.D., of Conceptions Women’s Health and Fertility Specialists in Boulder, Colo. “If a woman has blocked [fallopian] tubes, she can take all the herbs in the world and they won’t get her pregnant,” he says. Once you and your partner have been checked out, here are some approaches you may want to investigate.
A study published in Fertility and Sterility in 2000 found that about half of the women in either a support group or a cognitive-behavioral group became pregnant, compared with only 20 percent in a control group. (Cognitive-behavioral therapy involves learning to “reframe” negative thoughts like I will never have a baby to I am doing everything I can to try to get pregnant.) “Women with fertility issues have a high degree of depression, anxiety and isolation,” says Elizabeth Grill, Psy.D., a clinical psychologist at the Center for Reproductive Medicine and Infertility at Cornell Medical School in New York City. Grill offers women a “toolbox” of coping methods, including deep abdominal breathing, meditation, self-care, visualization and cognitive therapy.